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see also Kadota


see Kadota


Dottato is the primary name Condit used for what is now commonly called Kadota.

Grown commercially in Italy.


(syns. Abruzzes, Adottato, Binello, Dattero (?), Datteresi, Dottato Bianco, Grascello, Trifero, Medot, Gentile, Napoletani, Ottato, Uttato, Vottato, Kadota, Clarkadota, Endrich, White Endrich, White Pacific, Ficus carica binella Risso). Described by Porta (1592), La Quintinie (1692), Tournefort (1700), Liger (1702), Gallesio (1817), Risso (1826), Gasparrini (1845, as Ficus dottata), Duchartre (1857), Pasquale (1876), Roda (1881), Savastano (1885), Eisen (1888, 1897, 1901), Stubenrauch (1903), Mingioli (1904), Pellicano (1907), Starnes and Monroe (1907); Guglielmi (1908), Vallese (1909), Portale (1910), De Rosa (1911), Ferrari (1912), Siniscalchi (1911), Clark (1920), Borg (1922), Condit (1920c, 1921c, 1923, 1927, 1933, 1947), Anagnostopoulos (1937), Mauri (1942), Simonet et al. (1945), Tamaro (1948), Donno (1951a, 1951b), Casella (1952), and Baldini (1953). Illustrated in color by Clark; in black and white by Eisen, Vallese, Condit, Mauri, Tamaro, Simonet et al., Baldini, and Casella. (See last for synonyms.)

Dottato is probably the most important single fig variety grown. It constitutes a large percentage of the 70,000 tons of dried figs produced annually in Italy. In California the amount of dried figs of this variety totals over 3,000 tons, while 7,500 tons of fresh figs are canned; there are also many carloads of fresh fruit sent each season to local and distant markets, and dooryard trees are numerous.

According to Gallesio and some other Italian writers, Dottato is of ancient origin, having been praised by Pliny as an excellent fig for drying. This and a few other varieties may, therefore, have been perpetuated for some twenty centuries as single clones by propagation from cuttings. Porta described it as Ottato, a name which is still used around Naples. Gallesio reported that it is called Dottati at Sarzana, Binellino at Spezia and Chiavari, Binelli and Fichi di Napoli at Genoa, Gentile at Voltri, Napoletani at Finali, Fichi di Calabria and Dattaresi in western Liguria. According to Vallese, it is known as Napoletano at Corigliano d’Otranto, Lumincella at Francavilla, and Biancolella or Nardeleo at Oria and near Brindisi. The name Binelli is applied to Dottato by Risso because two fruits are often found joined together at the peduncle. Under his account of Dottato, Gallesio quoted the Latin description of Tournefort, who gave the common name as Medot, a synonym also used by La Quintinie and Liger. The latter stated that Medot is not raised much in France, as it is only mediocre in quality. Simonet et al. described Gentile, grown at Cap de Antibes, where it is called Figue des Abruzzes, and added that this variety appears to be the Dottato of Italy. Fracatsani, introduced in 1901 under P.I. No. 6,114 as one of the finest table figs grown on the island of Corfu, appeared to be identical with Dottato in the collection of varieties at Chico, California.

Trifero is described by Barron (1891) and Eisen (1901). The following P.I. numbers were labeled Trifero: 18,855, in the Chiswick collection from England; 86,802, from Nikita, Yalta, Crimea; and 102,021, from Marrakech, Morocco. In variety trials all three of these introductions proved to be identical with Dottato.

Dottato is grown commercially in all of the fig districts south of Naples, as well as in Sicily. Siniscalchi calls it the variety par excellence, and states that it is rightly known as the “golden fig.” According to Ferrari, it is the one best adapted to local conditions, both along the coast, as at Agropoli, and in the foothill valleys, such as at Cosenza. Both Guglielmi and Pellicano give it first rank among the figs of southern Italy, and De Rosa classes it highly for production of dried figs, as it has few seeds, sweet pulp, and delicate, although relatively thick, skin. It has been introduced into Greece, where Anagnostopoulos reports that trees produced and matured fruit well.

The exact time of the first introduction of Dottato into California is not known. Italian settlers in the foothill districts of the San Joaquin Valley undoubtedly introduced cuttings of this and other varieties for planting; large trees are still to be found on ranches established before the middle of the past century. White Endich is the name applied to a fig introduced into the Stockton district before 1870 and named for Mr. Endich of that city; later it was found to be identical with Dottato. The history of the Kadota fig and its rise to popularity has been related by Condit (1920c, 1927). Cuttings distributed by Van Deman (1890) of the United States Department of Agriculture under the name Dottato, were grown by the nursery firm, Twogood and Cutter, of Riverside, about 1889. The fruit exhibited in Los Angeles in 1893 attracted considerable attention, and created a demand for trees. In 1898, Stephen H. Taft, of Sawtelle, obtained cuttings and labeled the variety Kadota.

The name White Pacific was given to a fig propagated by W. R. Strong and Company, Sacramento, and described in their catalogue in 1883. It was found on the place of a Mr. White at Penryn, hence the name; but according to Milco (1884), trees of the same kind were “scattered now almost every place over the State,” especially around Stockton. Lelong (1890) reported it from San Diego. Clarkadota was the appellation coined in 1920 by a development company at Stockton, and purported to represent trees of a superior strain. Both White Pacific and Clarkadota have proved to be identical with Dottato when trees are grown side by side in the same orchard. P.I. No. 58,643 was introduced from Padua, Italy, as Dottato. It was grown and tested at the California stations, and was reported to be the best white fig fruited at Pomona in 1903, going through fog and rain without souring. Woodard (1938) reported that in Georgia the Kadota was the sweetest fig under test, and of superior quality, but that trees were more subject to cold injury than those of Celeste (Malta). In 1948, a few Kadota trees were found near Diamond Springs, Virginia.

Dottato is variously reported as a one-crop or a two-crop variety, the number of crops depending upon the locality where grown. For example, at Riverside and in the coastal districts of southern California the trees seldom mature perfect brebas; at Fresno, where the day and night temperatures of spring and early summer are much higher, a good breba crop is produced.

Trees are generally vigorous, developing naturally into a compact, rounded head (plate 1); terminal, dormant buds are green, as described by Donno (1951a). Leaves medium, dull to somewhat glossy above, variable, with nonlobed, 3-lobed, and 5-lobed leaves on the same tree, as shown by Condit (1927); upper and lower sinuses mostly rather shallow; base cordate; margins serrate to coarsely crenate.

Breba crop none, or fair; fruit medium to large, pyriform, often somewhat oblique; average weight 52 grams; neck thick, up to 7/8 inch long, sometimes curved; stalk variable, from short to 1/2 inch long; ribs present, moderately elevated, but mostly inconspicuous; eye medium to large, open, with thick, chaffy scales; surface fairly glossy; bloom delicate; white flecks few, but large and conspicuous; color green to yellowish green; meat thin, tinged with violet; pulp amber. Flavor rich and sweet; quality excellent; seeds few, hardly noticeable. (Plates 7; 20, A.)

Second-crop figs variable from early to late part of season and under different climatic conditions; size from below to above medium, or even large (1-3/4 inches in diameter by 2-1/4 inches in length); weight ranges from 30 to 80 grams; shape spherical to obovate, with or without short, thick neck; stalk variable, short and thick, or sometimes up to 1/2 inch long; ribs fairly prominent in larger specimens, or practically absent in smaller fruit as used for canning; eye medium, apparently open, but closed within the orifice, often sealed with drop of gum; scales straw color; surface glossy, with delicate bloom; skin rather thick, rubbery in texture, resistant to injury in handling; color green in cool climates to golden yellow in hot interior valleys; meat white, or often tinted violet in coastal climates, as pointed out by Condit (1950); pulp amber; seeds few, small, seed coat hardly or not at all sclerified. Flavor sweet, but lacking distinctive character; quality excellent, especially for preserving and canning; skin of dried fruit somewhat thick and tough. (Plates 12; 20, B.)

Caprified figs larger, grass green; pulp strawberry; seeds fertile. Good for drying. (Plates 8; 11.)

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Main Crop

Main Season
Main Flavor Group
Main Skin Color
Main Pulp Color
Main Eye
Main Flesh Color
Main Drying Suitable?
Main Preserves Suitable?
Main Additional Notes

Breba Crop

Breba Skin Color
Breba Pulp Color
Breba Flesh Color
Breba Eye
Breba Flavor Group
Breba Drying Suitable?
Breba Preserves Suitable?
Breba Wasps Required?
Breba Additional Notes


Cold Hardy?
Wind Resistant?
Good Container Variety?
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Additional Climate Notes