Fig Variety Details

General

Variety
Violette de Bordeaux (DFIC 63)
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NPGS ID
DFIC 063
AKA

Albicougris, Angelique Black, Angelique Noire, Bordeaux, Beers Black, Beer's Black (DFIC 277), Figue de Bordeaux, Figue Poire, Figue Violette, Figuo Aubiquoun, Negronne, Petite, Petite Aubique, Petite Figue Violette, VdB, Violette, Vista (DFIC 259)

Variety Strains
Description

Based upon genetic testing performed in 2010, Beer’s Black (DFIC 277), Violette de Bordeaud (DFIC 63) and Vista (DFIC 259) were determined to be synonyms. See Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated fig (Ficus carica L.) and a condensed spreadsheet compiled by Richard Frost.

One of the finest tasting figs, produces an abundance of small to medium sized purple-black fruit with an excellent, sweet, rich flavor. Dries well.

Bordeaux - Large almost black fruit with a very deep red pulp and a distinctive, but agreeable acid flavor. Brebas are pyriform with a thick, tapering neck; main crop figs are variable often without neck. Medium eye. Excellent fresh or dried. Well-adapted in the South and Southwest. Fairly hardy.

This is just a great all-round fig: nice flavor, cold hardy, heavy producer, easy to root and grow, disease resistant.
A very deep red strawberry pulp. Hardy 6-10’ self-fruiting plants produce a harvest of fruit that can be enjoyed fresh or dried. Plants will thrive in extremes of heat, humidity, and drought; very good resistance to pests and disease.
Planet Fig as Negronne: This cultivar has been present in South of France for a very long time and was grown by J.B. de la Quinitinie in the Versailles Castle during Louis XIV. This famous gardener described Negronne in 1692. Its presence in the Paris area, in England and even in North America demonstrates its resistance to cold and its ability to ripen fruits in cool climates with short autumns.
Negronne is a tree of average vigor, easy to train as a single or multi-stemmed tree and is adapted to small gardens. It has a very good cold resistance due to its weak growth and fast hardening of its new wood; even in shady location (about 30%), the wood is well hardened at the end of the season.
This variety is of particular interest for its regular blue-black brebas production of very good organoleptic qualities. The fruits are of average size (about 50 g) and resist very well to humid conditions. They are especially juicy, a little creamy with a pronounced and complex taste containing very present fruity notes. The sugar content may sometimes seem to be very high when the fruit is a little more than ripe. The taste is more balanced when the fruit is soft.
The main crop is heavy (around 300 figs in 2012), but all fruits don’t rippen in Vienna. As an average, only 2/3 of the crop may be harvested in the periphery of Vienna. The fruits are very resistant to bad weather and humid conditions. They are smaller (35 g), blue with some light dots and their skin is a little thicker. It is advisable not to harvest them too ripe, as they tend to become dryer, which increases the perception of the skin thickness when eaten. The pulp is of very good quality and is well balanced between sugar and fruity notes reminding of red berries. The sugar content and organolopetic qualities tend to drop rapidly as soon as days become shorter and sunshine becomes rare (end October / beginning of November). The fruits may dry on the tree when the autumn is warm enough.
Negronne holds very well when cooked and can be used to make pies, jellies or to accompany a dish of game for example.
To conclude, Negronne is a variety well adapted to cool climates with short seasons. Its production of brebas is regular and of exceptional quality while the main crop is very heavy. However to ripen a good quantity of main crop, which when ripe taste very good as well, the tree must be located in a sunny place during September and October. It can be associated with an early fig in order to extend by 2 or 3 weeks the harvest of main crop.
This observation was conducted in Vienna, Austria, by a Planet Fig correspondent where the tree only receives sunshine until 2.45 PM.
Pedigree
Condit Monograph

As Bordeaux: (syns. Angélique Black or A. Noire, Petite Figue Violette, Albicougris, according to Eisen, Figue de Bordeaux, Violette, Violette de Bordeaux, Figue Poire, Petite Aubique, Figuo Aubiquoun, Negronne). In 1692, a description by La Quintinie (translated by Evelyn) referred to the Angélique fig as “of a violet color and long but not very big, the pulp red and reasonably good.” Both Cupani (1696) and Tournefort (1700) described Angélique as a violet fig. Yet most later authors, from Duhamel (1768) on, refer to this variety as bearing yellow fruit. It seems proper, therefore, to denote the former as Angélique Black, leaving the name Angélique for the variety described elsewhere in this monograph. Eisen (1901) gave a short account (after Barron, 1891) of Angélique Noire, a dark fig with bright-red pulp.

It is probably this variety with dark fruit which was described as Figue de Bordeaux, Violette, or Violette de Bordeaux by Liger (1702), Merlet (1740), Duhamel (1768), Weston (1770), La Brousse (1774), Le Berryais (1789), Mirbel (1802), Noisette (1821), Bory de Saint Vincent (1824), George Lindley (1831), Couverchel (1839), Thompson (1859), Forney (1863), Hogg (1866), Du Breuil (1876), Barron (1891), Eisen (1888, 1901), Price and White (1902), Leclerc (1925), and E. A. Bunyard (1925). Negronne was described by Garidel (1715), Rozier (1805), Lamarck (1817), Bernard (1787), Duhamel (1768, 1809), Bory de Saint Vincent (1824), Noisette (1829), Couverchel (1839), Eisen (1901), and E. A. Bunyard (1925).

Barron (1891) regarded Negronne to be the same as Violette de Bordeaux. Eisen believed that the two were not identical, but very similar, except for the smaller leaves of the latter. Bunyard (1925) agreed with Eisen, and stated that Violette de Bordeaux resembled Negronne, but was a distinct variety. In regard to the stalk of Negronne, Eisen reported, “stalk and part of neck bent over and rising in a curve upward, where the fig hangs down.” This unique character is difficult to describe, but Eisen’s statement confirms the opinion that Violette de Bordeaux of our collection is the same as Negronne of early authors. As grown at Riverside, however, Bordeaux does not show the green color persisting on the neck or base of the mature fruit, which Duhamel (1768) found characteristic of the variety in France. Variety No.26 of Duhamel (1809), described as Figue Poire, Figue de Bordeaux, and Petite Aubique (Figuo Aubiquoun in Provence), is here considered to be the same as Angélique (Black) of Cupani and Tournefort. Duhamel described Negronne under his No.33, and referred to the previous accounts of Garidel and Bernard. Under Bordeaux, Eisen stated: “A distinction must be made between the Petite Aubique and the Aubique, the former being identical with our Bordeaux, the latter with Black San Pedro, which is synonymous with Grosse Violette de Bordeaux.” (See p.467.)

In 1715, Garidel reported that Negronne was found in nearly all the vineyards and fields near Aix. Duhamel and later authors, including Leclerc, assert that Figue de Bordeaux is grown in the vicinity of Paris, where it produces two crops in warm seasons. According to Eisen, Bordeaux is common around Bordeaux and Nagronne, in southern France. Lindley said it was then cultivated throughout France. Bunyard regarded the tree of Negronne as very prolific in England, and the fruit to be of excellent quality. Fruits of Bordeaux are illustrated by Duhamel (1768), Noisette (1821, in color), Du Breuil (1876), Rozier (1805), Wright (1894, in color), Eisen (1901), and by Price and White (1902). See also: The Garden 41:333 (1892).

Negronne was introduced into California from England as P.I. No. 18,839 of the Chiswick collection. At Niles, Chico, and Fresno it proved to be identical with Violette de Bordeaux, which was obtained in 1921 from the collection of Leroy Nickel at Menlo Park. Grosse Violette de Bordeaux, introduced as No. 18,844 of the Chiswick collection, produced fruit indistinguishable from that of Violette de Bordeaux, confirming the opinion of Barron (1891) that they were the same, but contradicting that of Eisen, mentioned above. No records have been found of tests of this variety at the California Experiment Stations. A tree, located at Santa Barbara in 1932, was identified as Bordeaux, and other trees are occasionally found in dooryards. Price and White found the tree of Bordeaux to be vigorous and prolific in Texas, but the fruit was insipid and the quality poor. Cuttings of a tree growing at 597 Columbia Road, N.W., Washington, D.C., have produced fruit in California identical with that of Bordeaux. At Portland, Oregon, Negronne produces two crops of black figs, good in quality.

Bordeaux is similar to Ischia Black, but differs from it in leaf and fruit characters. Leaves of Ischia Black are small, nonlobed or 3-lobed, surface dull; those of Bordeaux are medium, 3- to 5-lobed, deeply cleft, surface glossy. Duhamel described the leaves of Violette as smaller than those of Blanche, and divided deeply into five parts or lobes, with the borders markedly dentate. Figs of Ischia Black do not have the peculiar thick and crooked stalk that is characteristic of the Bordeaux fruit stalk. The small, immature fruits of both varieties show a distinctive early coloration of a reddish-brown hue, in contrast to fruits of Franciscana (Mission), which change to a black color just before reaching full size and maturity. The following description is from trees which have fruited at Riverside since 1930, and at Fresno in the season of 1953.

Tree rather dwarf in comparison with trees of Franciscana or Dottato; terminal buds violet-purple to brown in color. Leaves with upper surface glossy; base truncate to shallowly cordate; middle lobe narrowed toward its base, lateral lobes broad; margins coarsely serrate.

Breba crop fair to good; figs medium, up to 2-1/2 inches long and 1-3/4 inches in diameter, pyriform, with thick, gently tapering neck; average weight 36 grams; stalk variable, often thick or swollen toward body of the fruit, not straight, but commonly curved or bent at an angle, as mentioned above, up to 3/4 inch long, sometimes cracked or split on one side, the crack extending from stalk into the neck; ribs prominent, well elevated; eye medium, scales same color as body, which is purplish black; meat white, tinged with violet; pulp strawberry, rich; quality very good. (Plate 25, D.)

Second-crop figs small to medium, up to 1-3/4 inches long and 1-1/2 inches in diameter, spherical, or pyriform to obovate, often oblique; average weight 27 grams; neck missing, or when present, short and thick; stalk up to 5/8 inch long, peculiarly curved, as in brebas as shown by Condit (1941a, fig. 4, E), purplish in color; eye medium, open, scales purple; color purplish black on both body and neck; bloom commonly on basal half of fruit, but not on body or apex, characterized by Eisen (1901) as “a distinct and fine blue bloom confined to the neck, ending sharply halfway to the equatorial”; white flecks large, scattered, eventually masked by dark body color; skin somewhat glossy, purplish black when fully mature; meat white; pulp strawberry, fairly rich in flavor. (Plates 10; 25, E.)

Caprified specimens much the same, somewhat larger in size; pulp dark strawberry, subacid in flavor; seeds numerous,

This variety is inferior to Franciscana (Mission) for commercial planting, on account of smaller size of fruit; good for home planting, as tree is dwarf and prolific in fruit production.

Family
Violette de Bordeaux
Sub Family (New)
Type
Common
Collection
Planet Fig
Non-Carica
N/A
Availability
Excellent
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Beginner
Excellent
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Origin
France

Images

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Main Crop

Main Season
Mid
Main Earliness Rating (5=early, 1=late)

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Main Yield
Average
Main Yield Rating

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Main GDD
2400
Main Ripening Days
80
Main Primary Flavors
Bordeaux Berry, Complex Berry
Main Additional Flavors
Main Primary Flavor (New - In Process)
Main Secondary Flavor (New - In Process)
Main Flavor Notes (New - In Process)
Main Flavor Rating

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Main Fruit Size
15-30g
Main Seed Crunch
Main Seed Crunch Rating (1=none-little, 5=heavy)

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Main Skin Thickness
Thin
Main Eye Opening
Closed
Main Eye Opening Rating (1=large/open, 5=tight)

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Main Eye Description
Main Fruit Drop Resistance
Average
Main Fruit Drop Resistance Rating

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Main Split Resistance
Main Split Resistance Rating

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Main Rain Tolerance
High
Main Rain Tolerance Rating

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Main Uses
Fresh, Drying
Main Additional Notes

Breba Crop

Brebas?
Yes
Breba Yield
Low
Breba Yield Rating

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Breba GDD
Breba Flavor (Difference from Main)
Breba Primary Flavor (New - In Process)
Breba Secondary Flavor (New - In Process)
Breba Flavor Notes
Breba Ripening Days
Breba Fruit Size
30-50g
Breba Seed Crunch
Breba Skin Thickness
Breba Eye Opening
Breba Eye Description
Breba Fruit Drop Resistance
Breba Split Resistance
Breba Rain Tolerance
Average
Breba Uses
Breba Additional Notes

Climate

Vigor
Average
Vigor Rating

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Cold Hardiness
High
In Ground Zone
Produces After Die-back
Excellent
Produces After Die-back Rating

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Lignified Wood Winter Survival Rating

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Rooting Ease
Excellent
Rooting Ease Rating

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Container Adaptable
Excellent
Container Adaptable Rating

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RKN Resistance
Average
RKN Resistance Rating

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FMV Resistance
High
FMV Resistance Rating

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Additional Notes
  • Container Growing Rating: excellent
  • Cold Hardiness: very good
  • Zones: 5-10

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