Fig Variety Details

General

Variety
Dauphine (San Pedro)
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NPGS ID
DFIC 084
AKA

DFIC 84, Adam, Big of July, Boule d'or, Dauphine Violette, Ficus carica punctulata Risso, Gold Drop, Golden ball, Golden button, Grantham's Royal, Granthams Royal, Gray of Tarascon, Grise de Tarascon, Grise of Beaucaire, Grose of Tarascon, Grosse de Juillet, Grosse Violette, Hative Red of Argenteuil, Mussega Negra, New Violet, Pagaudière, Roll from Gold, Ronde Violette Hâtive, Rouge d'Argenteuil, Rouge de Argenteuil, White of Argenteuil

 

Variety Strains
Description

This variety which resists well to the transport a light savor and aroma and its skin is veined purple on a base of various colors from yellow to dark purple. It is regrettably very sensitive to the viral infection, to the fruit fly and to the cochineal. [Translated from French] San Pedro type fig grown extensively in southern France. Abundant large greenish-purple breba figs ripen early and have amber flesh with a rich flavor. Second fall crop needs pollination by the fig wasp to develop properly.

As Grantham's Royal: Grantham's Royal was a tree growing in Cupertino, CA. not far from Yamagami's Nursery. The parents of Martin Grantham (an avid and accomplished plantsmen (who had worked at the UC Berkeley Botanic Gardens for a while) were given cuttings of the tree as a wedding gift over 75 years ago from a tree growing in Santa Cruz Ca. What caught my eye when I saw the tree back in 1990 was the enormous breba figs on the tree. Typically each terminal branch had only 1 to 3 figs, at most, but the quality and size was very impressive. It appears to me to match the description of Drap D'Or a rather famous french fig. One would need a rather large tree in order to make a decent fig jam from the fruit. The name Grantham's Royal was my way of recognizing the owners and the apparent similarity to Royal Vineyard (Drap D'Or). (1006) The Breba Crop is 3X as large [as the main crop] and is more pyriform with more brown, green and purple streaks.

 

Pedigree
Condit Monograph

Dauphine [under San Pedro type]: (syns. Dauphine Violette, Grosse Violette, Ronde Violette Hâtive, Rouge de Argenteuil, Mussega Negra, Ficus carica punctulata Risso, Pagaudière, Adam). Described by Risso (1826), Barron (1868c, 1891), Lhérault (1872), Du Breuil (1876), Simon-Louis (1895), Eisen (1888, 1901), Forrer (1894), Schneider (1902), Juignet (1909), Mazières (1920), Bois (1928), Soc. Nat. d’Hort. de France (1928), A. Rivière (1928), Delplace (1933), Simonet et al. (1945), Delbard (1947), Evreinoff (1947), and by Simonet and Chopinet (1947). Illustrated in black and white by Du Breuil, Bois, Simonet, and Condit (1941 a, fig. 2, H). Illustrated in color by Delbard, and by Simonet and Chopinet.

Dauphine is grown near Paris for its abundant breba crop; it is also cultivated extensively in southern France on account of its large, attractive fruits, which carry well to distant markets. According to Simonet et al., it is known at Sollies-Pont as Boule d’Or, Bouton d’Or, and Grosse de Juillet; but the last name is also given as a synonym of Sultane. These authors also refer it to Mussega Negra (Ficus carica punctulata Risso). There are small plantings of Dauphine near Tokyo, Japan, where the brebas ripen in July.

In 1883, Dauphine was introduced into California from England by John Rock as Ronde Violette Hâtive, and trees were planted for trial at various experiment stations in this state and in Arizona. At the Tulare, California, station, it was reported to be one of the most promising commercial sorts under tests. P.I. No. 18,912 of the Chiswick collection was labeled Dauphine. Another one of the same collection, P.I. No. 18,873, labeled Adam, was found to be the same as Dauphine, both in tree and in fruit. A variety introduced from France by Felix Gillet, Nevada City, as Pagaudière, has also proved at Riverside to be identical with Dauphine, although Eisen described it as a reddish-yellow fig.

Trees were under trial at the Government Date Garden, Indio, before 1926, and several growers in the Coachella Valley obtained cuttings. From one small commercial orchard, the fresh figs were sent to market under the name “Superba.” No other commercial plantings have been made in California, as Dauphine can hardly compete successfully with other black figs such as Franciscana (Mission) for fresh-fruit shipping, and its quality dried is very inferior. Trees have fruited at Fresno since 1924, and at Riverside since 1931.

In California, trees of Dauphine drop all fruits of the second crop unless caprification is practiced.

Tree vigorous, upright; outer branches drooping; terminal dormant buds green, shading to brown or violet. Leaves medium to large, 3- to 5-lobed; upper surface somewhat glossy; upper sinuses of medium depth and width, lower sinuses shallow and broad; base subcordate; margins coarsely crenate. Description of fruit is from specimens at Riverside, in comparison with the account by Simonet.

Breba crop generally good; fruit large, 2-1/2 by 2-1/2 inches, turbinate, with or without a short, broad neck; average weight 92 grams; stalk up to 1/4 inch long; ribs broad, slightly elevated, more deeply colored than body; eye large, protruding, open, scales violet; skin of firm texture, resistant; surface glossy, with white flecks numerous and conspicuous; bloom rather heavy, pruinose; color greenish violet in the shade to violet-purple on exposed side, shading to green toward the stalk; meat white, almost 1/4 inch thick; pulp light strawberry; seeds large, fairly numerous. Flavor fairly rich, but lacking distinctive fig character. Quality fair to good; especially good for shipping fresh.

Second-crop figs much the same as brebas, except for smaller size; shape oblate- spherical; pulp gelatinous with fertile seeds; average weight 70 grams; quality poor;

As Adam: Described by Eisen (1888, 1901), Barron (1891), Davis (1928), and by Burger and De Wet (1931). P.I. No. 18,873, introduced from England as Adam, proved to be identical with Dauphine; P.I. No. 102,003, from Morocco, also labeled Adam, produced small green figs of no value. Apparently this is a French variety, the original name having been lost; said to be desirable on account of its good first crop.

Brebas above medium, turbinate, with medium neck; eye large; skin dull green, with violet flush; pulp amber-white.

Second-crop figs medium, ribbed; color yellowish brown; pulp dull amber to red. Useful for dessert in South Africa.

Family
Dauphine
Sub Family (New)
Type
San Pedro
Collection
Pierre Baud
Non-Carica
N/A
Availability
Average
Availability Rating

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Beginner
Poor
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Origin
France

Images

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Main Crop

Main Season
Main Earliness Rating (5=early, 1=late)

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Main Yield
Average
Main Yield Rating

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Main GDD
Main Ripening Days
Main Primary Flavors
Main Additional Flavors
Main Primary Flavor (New - In Process)
Main Secondary Flavor (New - In Process)
Main Flavor Notes (New - In Process)
Main Flavor Rating

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Main Fruit Size
50-75g
Main Seed Crunch
Heavy
Main Seed Crunch Rating (1=none-little, 5=heavy)

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Main Skin Thickness
Main Eye Opening
Open
Main Eye Opening Rating (1=large/open, 5=tight)

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Main Eye Description
Main Fruit Drop Resistance
Average
Main Fruit Drop Resistance Rating

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Main Split Resistance
Main Split Resistance Rating

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Main Rain Tolerance
Average
Main Rain Tolerance Rating

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Main Uses
Main Additional Notes

Breba Crop

Brebas?
Yes
Breba Yield
Excellent
Breba Yield Rating

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Breba GDD
Breba Flavor (Difference from Main)
Breba Primary Flavor (New - In Process)
Breba Secondary Flavor (New - In Process)
Breba Flavor Notes
Breba Ripening Days
Breba Fruit Size
100-150g
Breba Seed Crunch
Heavy
Breba Skin Thickness
Breba Eye Opening
Open
Breba Eye Description
Breba Fruit Drop Resistance
Breba Split Resistance
Breba Rain Tolerance
Average
Breba Uses
Breba Additional Notes

7/22, 36g

Climate

Vigor
Excellent
Vigor Rating

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Cold Hardiness
In Ground Zone
Produces After Die-back
Average
Produces After Die-back Rating

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Lignified Wood Winter Survival Rating

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Rooting Ease
Average
Rooting Ease Rating

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Container Adaptable
Average
Container Adaptable Rating

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RKN Resistance
Average
RKN Resistance Rating

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FMV Resistance
Poor
FMV Resistance Rating

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Additional Notes

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